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  • Italian in Thirty Short Lessons
    Italiano in Trenta Brevi Lezioni
    by Giancarlo v. Nacher Malvaioli

    Sixth Lesson
    Lezione Sesta

    AUXILIARY VERB TO BE
    VERBO AUSILIARE ESSERE (ESsere)

    Presente Indicativo

    (io) sono
    (tu) sei
    (lei) è
    *(egli-ella-lui-lei) è
    (noi) siamo
    (voi) siete
    *(essi-esse-loro) sono
    (loro) sono

    Simple Present

    (I am)
    (informal) (you are)
    (formal) (you are)
    (he-she-it is)
    (we are)
    (informal) (you are)
    (they are)
    (formal plural) (you are)

    • In Italian there are only two auxiliaries: To be (ESsere) and to have (avere).
    • In Italian personal subjet pronouns are omited unless you emphasize them; examples: sono italiano (I am Italian), sei molto bella (you (informal) are very beautiful), è una signora molto alta (she is a very tall lady), è proprio gentile con noi (you (formal) are so kind to us). But if you emphasize them: io sono italiano, ma tu sei francese (I am Italian, but you (informal) are French), io sono brutto, ma lei è carina (I am ugly, but you (formal) are pretty.
    • Io is not capitalized, unless it is at the beginning of a sentence.
    • Tu is informal (familiar and friendly) and its plural is voi: example: tu bambino sei buono e voi bambini siete cattivi (your child is good and your children are bad).
    • Voi, with the verb in plural but eventhough addressed to a single person, is generally used in commercial correspondence; example: voi signor X (o signori X) siete molto esperto in automobili (autoMObili) stranieri (You Mr. X (or Mrs) are an expert in foreign cars).
    • Egli, ella, essi, esse are generally used only for the declination of verbs
    • Lui, lei and loro (plural) when emphasizing the person or persons spoken about; examples: lui è americano, lei è inglese (he is American, she is English), loro sono qui (they are here).

    Print This Lesson

    Lesson/Lezione
    1
    11
    21
    2
    12
    22
    3
    13
    23
    4
    14
    24
    5
    15
    25
    6
    16
    26
    7
    17
    27
    8
    18
    28
    9
    19
    29
    10
    20
    30
    Index/Indice
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